General nCenter FAQs

What is my first step at the nCenter?

Along with an initial counseling intake, we recommend that counseling and/or neurofeedback begin with a quantitative electroencephalogram(qEEG), or brain map. The qEEG is a noninvasive measurement of your brain’s activity using conductive gel and a cap wired to an amplifier and a computer system. The process can be scheduled with our office in person or by calling (406) 599-2492..

What does the qEEG do?

A qEEG compares your brain waves to the brain waves of a normative database of people the same age. It measures a brain deviation from normal and graphically displays the results in units of standard deviations. It also provides detailed brain activities in Brodmann Areas, different areas of your brain associated with memory recall, vision, hearing and other functions. It is a diagnostic tool used to help determine the most effective use of counseling and/or neurofeedback and to measure progress.

What are brainwaves?

Brainwaves are synchronized electrical pulses from masses of neurons communicating with each other. The brain has multiple detectable electrical brainwave patterns that fall into different groups: sub delta (σδ<1 Hz), delta (δ 1-4 Hz), theta (θ~4-8 Hz), alpha (α~8-12 Hz),beta (β~12-16 Hz), hi-beta (ηβ~16-30 Hz) and gamma (γ>30 Hz). A simplification is:

• Delta – δ Deep meditation, dreamless sleep, suspended external awareness, source empathy
• Theta – θ Sleep and meditation, gateway to learning and memory, between sleep and wake
• Alpha – α Resting state quietly flowing thoughts, calm, alert, mind/body integration learning
• Beta – β Attentive problem solving, judgment, decision making, focused mental activity
• hiBeta – ηβ Highly complex thought, high anxiety or excitement, integrating new experiences
• gamma – γ Traditionally dismissed as “noise”, now associated with expanded consciousness

How are qEEG reports evaluated and presented?

All results are reviewed and individual plans for counseling and neurofeedback are developed for each client. Printed summary reports of varying complexity are prepared.

What diagnoses can the qEEG indicate?

An article in the Journal of Applied Neuroscience ( suggests that qEEG is effective in indicating eight diagnoses with identifiable characteristics 1) anxiety 2) depression 3) dementia 4) OCD 5) schizophrenia 6) learning disabilities 7) ADD and 8) ADHD.  At the nCenter we have clinical experience with anxiety, depression, OCD, and ADD.

What other information do the reports display?

The results may display signs of previous physical trauma to the brain. If any signs of seizure activity are noted, you will be referred to a neurologist.

How often are qEEG and neurofeedback sessions administered?  

The qEEG is administered before counseling and/or neurofeedback begins and is readministered approximately every five to twelve sessions. For the most effective results, counseling sessions with neurofeedback are conducted at one or two times a week. The qEEG results inform counseling and neurofeedback.

What neurofeedback systems are used at the nCenter?

We use Neurofield, which includes pulsed electromagnetic field (pEMF) stimulation, Transcranial Direct Current/Alternating Current and Random Noise Stimulation (TDC/ACS and TRNS) and Real Time Z-Score operant conditioning training (4 Channel and 19 Channel). We also use Low Energy Neurofeedback Systems (LENS) to assist in the brain becoming more flexible and functional.

How is neurofeedback administered?

We administer the Neurofield pEMF (pulsed electromagnetic field) frequencies by placing electro-magnetic coils on a velcro cap which is secured on the head.  When we administer TDC/ACS and TRNS, we use electrical leads with sticky pads that adhere to the head or electrical leads that adhere with conductive paste.  When we are providing Real Time Z-Score (RTZ) Training, we underlay the velcro cap with electrical leads and use conductive paste to secure proper connectivity for a 4 Channel RTZ or we use a 19 Channel qEEG cap for a 19 Channel RTZ. We administer Low Energy Neurofeedback Systems (LENS) using electrical leads held to the scalp with conductive paste. When stimulated with either pEMF, TDCS, TACS or TRNS, the brain will often adapt to the suggestion sent and shift voluntarily to a more balanced and regulated state. With LENS, it appears that the brain balances and regulates by disrupting old brainwave patterns.  When using 4 Channel or 19 Channel RTZ, the brain is trained to become more balanced and regulated through the process of Operant Conditioning.

What neurofeedback systems are used at the nCenter?

Most of our systems are Neurofield ( and our primary protocols are passive suggestions to the brain.  We also use the LENS ( particularly for epilepsy, headaches and Tramatic Brain Injury.  We may also use other forms of neurofeedback such as brainwave training if indicated by the qEEG.