NeuroModec –  Discover almost a hundred research articles on the benefits of tDCS and  tACS from NeuroModec, a free online service created to support the development of neuromodulation through the integration of shared resources, research tools, professional standards, events and inter-institution collaboration. serves to advance neuromodulation basic research, technologies and the clinical implementation of the associated therapies.

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Pain and Headache Related:

Bazanova, O.M., Aftanas, L.I. (2010).Individual EEG alpha activity analysis for enhancement neurofeedback efficiency: Two case studies.  Journal of Neurotherapy14(3), 244 – 253.

Coger, R., & Werbach, M. (1975). Attention, anxiety, and the effects of learned enhancement of EEG alpha in chronic pain: A pilot study in biofeedback. Chapter in B. L. Drue, Jr. (Ed.), Pain Research and Treatment. New York: Academic Press.

Gannon, L., & Sternbach, R. A. (1971). Alpha enhancement as a treatment for pain: A case study. Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 2, 209-213.

Ham, L. P., & Packard, R. C. (1996). A retrospective, follow-up study of biofeedback-assisted relaxation therapy in patients with posttraumatic headache. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 21(2), 93-104.

Jensen, M.P., Sherlin, L.H., Hakimian, S., Fregni, F. (2009). Neuromodulatory approaches for chronic pain management: Research findings and clinical implications.Journal of Neurotherapy 13(4), 196 – 213.

Jensen, M. P., Grierson, C., Tracy-Smith, V., Bacigalupi, S. C., Othmer, S. (2007).  Neurofeedback treatment for pain associated with complex regional pain syndrome. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 45-53.

Lehmann, D., Lang, W., & Debruyne, P. (1976). Controlled EEG alpha feedback training in normals and headache patients. Archives of Psychiatry, 221, 331-343.

Matthew, A., Mishm, H., & Kumamiah, V. (1987). Alpha feedback in the treatment of tension headache. Journal of Personality & Clinical Studies, 3(1), 17-22.

Brain Injury and Stroke Related:

Ayers, M. E. (1981). A report on a study of the utilization of electroencephalography for the treatment of cerebral vascular lesion syndromes. Chapter in L. Taylor, M. E. Ayers, & C. Tom (Eds.), Electromyometric Biofeedback Therapy. Los Angeles: Biofeedback and Advanced Therapy Institute, pp. 244-257.

Ayers, M. E. (1987). Electroencephalic neurofeedback and closed head injury of 250 individuals. Head Injury Frontiers. National Head Injury Foundation, 380-392.

Ayers, M. E. (1991). A controlled study of EEG neurofeedback training and clinical psychotherapy for right hemispheric closed head injury. Paper presented at the National Head Injury Foundation, Los Angeles, 1991.

Ayers, M. E. (1995a). A controlled study of EEG neurofeedback and physical therapy with pediatric stroke, age seven months to age fifteen, occurring prior to birth. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 20(3), 318.

Ayers, M. E. (199

d:5b). EEG neurofeedback to bring individuals out of level 2 coma.Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 20(3), 304-305.

Ayers, M. E. (1999). Assessing and treating open head trauma, coma, and stroke using real-time digital EEG neurofeedback. Chapter in J. R. Evans & A. Abarbanel (Eds.), Introduction to Quantitative EEG and Neurofeedback. New York: Academic Press, pp. 203-222.

Ayers, M. E. (2004). Neurofeedback for cerebral palsy. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(2), 93-94.

Bachers, A. (2004). Neurofeedback with cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(2), 95-96.

Bearden, T. S., Cassisi, J. E., & Pineda, M. (2003). Neurofeedback training for a patient with thalamic and cortical infarctions. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 28(3), 241-253.

Bounias, M., Laibow, R. E., Bonaly, A., & Stubblebine, A. N. (2001). EEG-neurobiofeedback treatment of patients with brain injury: Part 1: Typological classification of clinical syndromes.Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(4), 23-44.

Bounias, M., Laibow, R. E., Stubbelbine, A. N.,Sandground, H., & Bonaly, A. (2002). EEG-neurobiofeedback treatment of patients with brain injury Part 4: Duration of treatments as a function of both the initial load of clinical symptoms and the rate of rehabilitation. Journal of Neurotherapy, 6(1), 23-38.

Byers, A. P. (1995). Neurofeedback therapy for a mild head injury. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(1), 22-37.

Cannon, K. B., Sherlin, L., & Lyle, R. R. (2010).  Neurofeedback efficacy in the treatment of a 43-year-old female stroke victim: a case study.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 14(2), 107-121.

Doppelmayr, M., Nosko, H., Pecherstorfer, T., & Fink, A.  (2007).  An attempt to increase cognitive performance after stroke with neurofeedback.  Biofeedback, 35(4), 126-130.

Duff, J. (2004). The usefulness of quantitative EEG (QEEG) and neurotherapy in the assessment and treatment of post-concussion syndrome. Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 35(4), 198-209.

Ham, L. P., & Packard, R. C. (1996). A retrospective, follow-up study of biofeedback-assisted relaxation therapy in patients with posttraumatic headache. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 21(2), 93-104.

Hammond, D. C. (2007).  Can LENS neurofeedback treat anosmia resulting from a head injury?  Journal of Neurotherapy11(1), 57-62.

Hammond, D. C. (2006). Neurofeedback to improve physical balance, incontinence, and swallowing. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(1), 27-48.

Hoffman, D. A., Stockdale, S., & Van Egren, L. (1996a). Symptom changes in the treatment of mild traumatic brain injury using EEG neurofeedback [Abstract]. Clinical Electroencephalography, 27(3), 164.

Hoffman, D. A., Stockdale, S., & Van Egren, L. (1996b). EEG neurofeedback in the treatment of mild traumatic brain injury [Abstract]. Clinical Electroencephalography, 27(2), 6.

Anxiety and PTSD Realted:

Epilepsy Related:

Rockstroh, B., Elbert, T., Birbaumer, N., Wolf, P., Duchting-Roth, A., Reker, M., Daum, I., Lutzenberger, W., & Dichgans, J. (1993). Cortical self-regulation in patients with epilepsies.Epilepsy Research, 14. 63-72.

Rudrud, E., & Striefel, S. (1981). Eight to twelve hertz occipital EEG training with moderate and severely retarded epileptic individuals. Australian Journal of Developmental Disabilities,7(4), 173-179.

Seifert, A. R.,& Lubar, J. F. (1975). Reduction of epileptic seizures through EEG biofeedback training. Biological Psychology, 3, 157-184.

Sterman, M. B., & Friar, L. (1972). Suppression of seizures in epileptics following sensorimotor EEG feedback training. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 33, 89-95.

Sterman, M. B. (1973a). Neurophysiological and clinical studies of sensorimotor EEG biofeedback training: Some effects on epilepsy. Seminars in Psychiatry, 5(4), 507-525.

Sterman, M. B. (1973b). Neurophysiological and clinical studies of sensorimotor EEG biofeedback training: Some effects on epilepsy. Chapter in L. Birk (Ed.), Biofeedback: Behavioral Medicine. New York: Grune & Stratton, pp. 147-165.

Sterman, M. B., Macdonald, L. R., & Stone, R. K. (1974). Biofeedback training of the sensorimotor electroencephalogram rhythm in man: Effects on epilepsy. Epilepsia, 15(3), 395-416.

Sterman, M. B. (1977). Sensorimotor EEG operant conditioning: Experimental and clinical effects. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Sciences, 12(2), 63-92.

Sterman, M. B., & Macdonald, L. R. (1978). Effects of central cortical EEG feedback training on incidence of poorly controlled seizures. Epilepsia, 19(3), 207-222.

Sterman, M. B., & Shouse, M. N. (1980). Quantitative analysis of training, sleep EEG and clinical response to EEG operant conditioning in epileptics. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 49, 558-576.

Sterman, M. B. (1986). Epilepsy and its treatment with EEG feedback therapy. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 8, 21-25.

Sterman, M. B. (1997).The challenge of EEG biofeedback in the treatment of epilepsy: A view from the trenches. Biofeedback, 25(1), 6-7, 20-21, 23.

Sterman, M. B. (2000). Basic concepts and clinical findings in the treatment of seizure disorders with EEG operant conditioning. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), 45-55.

Sterman, M. B., & Lantz, D. (2001). Changes in lateralized memory performance in subjects with epilepsy following neurofeedback training. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(2), 63-72.

Sterman, M. B., & Egner, T. (2006). Foundation and practice of neurofeedback for the treatment of epilepsy. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 31(1), 21-36.

Strehl, U., Trevorrow, T., Veit, R., Hinterberger, T., Kotchoubey, B., Erb, M., & Birbaumer, N.(2006). Deactivation of brain areas during self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in seizure patients. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 31(1), 85-94.

Attention Deficit Related:

Kotwal, D. B., Burns, W. J., & Montgomery, D. D. (1996). Computer-assisted cognitive training for ADHD: A case study. Behavior Modification, 20(1), 85-96.

Kropotov, J. D., Grin-Yatsenko, V. A., Ponomarev, V. A., Chutko, L. S., Yakovenko, E. A., & Nikishena, I. S. (2007).  Changes in EEG spectograms, event-related potentials and event-related desynchronization induced by relative beta training in ADHD children.  Journal of Neurotherapy11(2), 3-11.

Kropotov, J. D., Grin-Yatsenko, V. A., Ponomarev, V. A., Chutko, L. S., Yakovenko, E. A., Nildshena, I. S. (2005). ERPs correlates of EEG relative beta training in ADHD children.International Journal of Psychophysiology, 55(1), 23-34.

Kwon, H., Cho, J., Lee, E. (2009). EEG asymmetry analysis of the left and right brain activities during simple versus complex arithmetic learning. Journal of Neurotherapy 13(2), 109 – 116.

Leins, U., Goth, G., Hinterberger, T., Klinger, C., Rumpf, M., & Strehl, U. (2007). Neurofeedback for Children with ADHD: A Comparison of SCP and Theta/Beta Protocols.Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 32

Levesque, J., Beauregard, M., & Mensour, B. (2006). Effect of neurofeedback training on the neural substrates of selective attention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Letters, 394(3), 216-221.

Linden, M., Habib, T., & Radojevic, V. (1996). A controlled study of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 21(1), 35-49.

Loo, S., & Barkley, R. (2005). Clinical utility of EEG in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Applied Neuropsychology, 12(2), 64-76.

Lubar, J. F. (1985). EEG biofeedback and learning disabilities. Theory into Practice, 26, 106-111

Lubar, J. F. (1995). Neurofeedback for the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Chapter in M. S. Schwartz (Ed.), Biofeedback: A Practitioner’s Guide. New York, Guilford, 493-522.

Lubar, J. F. (2003). Neurofeedback for the management of attention deficit / hyperactivity disorders. Chapter in M. S. Schwartz & F. Andrasik (Eds.), Biofeedback: A Practitioner’s Guide Third Edition. New York, Guilford, 409-437.

Lubar, J. O., & Lubar, J. F. (1984). Electroencephalographic biofeedback of SMR and beta for treatment of attention deficit disorders in a clinical setting.

Autism Spectrum Related:

Baruth, J.,  Casanova, M.,  El-Baz, A.,  Horrell, T.,  Mathai, G.,  Sears, L., Sokhadze, E. (2010).  Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation modulates evoked-gamma frequency oscillations in autism spectrum disorder. Journa1 of Neurotherapy 14(3), 179 – 194.

Coben, R., & Myers, T. E. (2010).  The relative efficacy of connectivity guided and symptom based EEG biofeedback for autistic disorders.  Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 35(1), 13-23.

Knezevic, B., Thompson, L., & Thompson, M. (2010).  Pilot project to ascertain the utility of Tower of London Test to assess outcomes of neurofeedback in clients with Asperger’s Syndrome.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 14(3), 3-19.

Sokhadze, E., Baruth, J., El-Baz, A., Horrell, T., Sokhadze, G., Carroll, T., Tasman, A., Sears, L., Casanova, M. (2010).Impaired error monitoring and correction function in Autism. Journal of Neurotherapy 14(2), 79-95.   

Kouijzer, M. E. UJ., de Moor, J. M. H., Gerrits, B. J. L., Buitelaar, J. K., & van Schie, H. T. (2009).  Long-term effects of neurofeedback treatment in autism.  Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 496-501.

Pineda JA, Brang D, Hecht E, Edwards L, Carey S, Bacon M, Futagaki C, Suk D, Tom J, Birnbaum C, Rork A.(2008). Positive behavioral and electrophysiological changes following neurofeedback training in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 2. 557-581. 

Coben, R. (2007).  Connectivity-guided neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder.  Biofeedback, 35(4), 131-135.

Coben, R., & Pudolsky, I. (2007).  Assessment-guided neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder.  Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 5-23. 

Jarusiewicz, G. (2007).  Use of neurofeedback with autistic spectrum disorders.  Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback.  Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 321-339

Pineda, J. A., Brang, D., Futagaki, C., Hecht, E., Grichanik, M., Wood, L., Bacon, M., & Carey, S.  (2007).  Effects of neurofeedback training on action comprehension and imitation learning.  Chapter in Puckhaber, H. L. (Ed.), New research in biofeedback.  Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers,  pp. 133-152. 

Scolnick, B. (2005). Effects of electroencephalogram biofeedback with Asperger’s syndrome. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 28(2), 159-163.

Jarusiewicz, B. (2002). Efficacy of neurofeedback for children in the autistic spectrum: A pilot study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 6(4), 39-49.

Sichel, A. G., Fehmi, L. G., & Goldstein, D. M. (1995). Positive outcome with neurofeedback treatment of a case of mild autism. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(1), 60-64.

Developmental Disorder Related:

Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2001). Learned self-regulation of EEG frequency components affects attention and event-related brain potentials in humans. NeuroReport, 12, 4155-4159.

Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2004).EEG biofeedback of low beta band components: Frequency-specific effects on variables of attention and event-related brain potentials.Clinical Neurophysiology, 115(1), 131-139.

Fehmi, L. G. (2007).  Multichannel EEG phase synchrony training and verbally guided attention training for disorders of attention.  Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback.  Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 301-319.

Fernandez, T., Herrera, W., Harmony, T., Diaz-Comas, L., Santiago, E., Sanchez, L., Bosch, J., Fernandez-Bouzas, A., Otero, G., Ricardo-Garcell, J., Barraza, C., Aubert, E., Galan, L., & Valdes, P. (2003). EEG and behavioral changes following neurofeedback treatment in learning disabled children. Clinical Electroencephalography, 34(3), 145-150.

Fleischman, M. J., & Othmer, S. (2005). Case study: Improvements in IQ score and maintenance of gains following EEG biofeedback with mildly developmentally delayed twins.Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(4), 35-46.

Foks, M. (2005).Neurofeedback training as an educational intervention in a school setting: How the regulation of arousal states can lead to improved attention and behaviour in children with special needs. Educational & Child Psychology, 22(3), 67-77.

Jackson, G. M., & Eberly, D. A. (1982). Facilitation of performance on an arithmetic task as a result of the application of a biofeedback procedure to suppress alpha wave activity.Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 7(2), 211-221.

Jacobs, E. H. (2005). Neurofeedback treatment of two children with learning, attention mood, social, and developmental deficits. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(4), 55-70.

Kaiser, D. A., & Othmer, S. (2000). Effect of Neurofeedback on variables of attention in a large multi-center trial. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(1), 5-15.

Kwon, H., Cho, J., Lee, E. (2009). EEG asymmetry analysis of the left and right brain activities during simple versus complex arithmetic learning. Journal of Neurotherapy 13(2), 109 – 116.

Lubar, J. F. (1985). EEG biofeedback and learning disabilities. Theory into Practice, 26, 106-111

Lubar, J. F., & Shouse, M. N. (1976). EEG and behavioral changes in a hyperactive child concurrent with training of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR): A preliminary report. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 1(3), 293-306.

Lutzenberger W, Elbert T, Rockstroh B, Birbaumer N. (1982) Biofeedback produced slow brain potentials and task performance. Biological Psychology, 14, 99-111.

McKnight, J. T., & Fehmi, L. G. (2001). Attention and neurofeedback synchrony training: Clinical results and their significance. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1-2), 45-62..

Mulholland, T. Goodman, D., & Boudrot, R. (1983). Attention and regulation of EEG alpha-attenuation responses. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 8(4), 585-600.

Norris, S. L., Lee, C-T., Burshteyn, D., & Cea-Aravena, J. (2001). The effects of performance enhancement training on hypertension, human attention, stress, and brain wave patterns: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(3), 29-44.

Orlando, P. C., & Rivera, R. O. (2004). Neurofeedback for elementary students with identified learning problems. Journal of Neurotherapy, 8(2), 5-19.

Sleep Related:

Bell, J. S. (1979). The use of EEG theta biofeedback in the treatment of a patient with sleep-onset insomnia.Biofeedback & Self Regulation, 4(3), 229-236.

Berner, I., Schabus, M., Wienerroither, T., & Klimesch, W. (2006).The significance of sigma neurofeedback training on sleep spindles and aspects of declarative memory. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 31(2), 97-114.

Feinstein, B., Sterman, M. B., & MacDonald, L. R. (1974). Effects of sensorimotor rhythm training on sleep. Sleep Research, 3, 134.

Hoedlmoser, K., Pecherstorfer, T., Gruber, E., Anderer, P., Doppelmayr, M., Klimesch, W., & Schabus, M. (2008).  Instrumental conditioning of human sensorimotor rhythm (12-15 Hz) and its impact on sleep as well as declarative learning.  Sleep31(10), 1401-1408.

Mills, G. K., & Solyom, L. (1974). Biofeedback of EEG alpha in the treatment of obsessive ruminations: An exploration. Journal of Behaviour Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 5, 37-41.

Sittenfeld, P., Budzynski, T. H., & Stoyva, J. M. (1976). Differential shaping of EEG theta rhythms. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 1, 31-46.

Sterman, M. B. (1977). Effects of sensorimotor EEG feedback on sleep and clinical manifestations of epilepsy. Chapter in J. Beatty & H. Legewie (Eds.), Biofeedback and Behavior. New York: Plenum, pp. 167-200.

Sterman, M. B., Howe, R. D., & Macdonald, L. R. (1970). Facilitation of spindle-burst sleep by conditioning of electroencephalographic activity while awake. Science, 167, 1146-1148.

Addiction and Substance Abuse Disorder Related:

Peniston, E. G., Marrinan, D. A., Deming, W. A., & Kulkosky, P. J. (1993). EEG alpha-theta brainwave synchronization in Vietnam theater veterans with combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse. Advances in Medical Psychotherapy, 6, 37-50.

Saxby, E., & Peniston, E. G. (1995). Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: An effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(5), 685-693.

Schneider, F., Elbert, T., Heimann, H., Welker, A., Stetter, F., Mattes, R., Birbaumer, N., & Mann, K. (1993). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials in psychiatric patients: Alcohol dependency. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 18, 23-32.

Scott, W., & Kaiser, D. (1998). Augmenting chemical dependency treatment with neurofeedback training.Journal of Neurotherapy 3(1), 66.

Sokhadze, E., Stewart, C., Hollifield, M., Tasman, A. (2008).Event-related potential study of executive dysfunctions in a speeded reaction task in cocaine addiction.
Journal of Neurotherapy 12(4), 185 – 204.

Sokhadze, E., Singh, S., Stewart, C., Hollifield, M., El-Baz, A., Tasman, A.(2008).Attentional bias to drug- and stress-related pictorial cues in cocaine addiction comorbid with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.Journal of Neurotherapy 12(4), 205 – 225.

Sokhadze, E. M., Cannon R. L., & Trudeau D. L. (2008) EEG biofeedback as a treatment for Substance Use Disorders: review, rating of efficacy, and recommendations for further research. Journal of Neurotherapy12(1), 5- 43.

Sokhadze, T. M., Cannon, R. L., & Trudeau, D. L. (2008).  EEG biofeedback as a treatment for substance use disorders: Review, rating of efficacy, and recommendations for further research.  Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback,